Countries implementing this study were selected based on background disease burden of DR-TB and represent a diverse participant population, DR-TB patterns, and laboratory capacities. Clinical research sites (CRS) within countries were selected to ensure sufficient numbers of DR-TB cases to meet recruitment targets. Participants will be enrolled in nine clinical research sites. These are located in South Africa, Nigeria and Ethiopia

1. Ethiopia (Ethiopian Public Health Institute [EPHI])
     • Borumeda Hospital, Amhara, Ethiopia and
     • Dilchora Hospital, Diredawa, Ethiopia.
     • Alert Hospital, Addis Ababa
     • St. Peter Hospital, Addis Ababa
     • Geda Health Center, Adama Hospital, Adama

2. Nigeria (Institute of Human Virology Nigeria LTDGTE [IHVN])
     • Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Plateau state
     • Plateau State Human Virology Research Centre (PLASVIREC), Jos Plateau state
     • University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), FCT
     • St. Gerald's Hospital, Kaduna state
     • National Tuberculosis Leprosy Control Programme Saye, (NTBLCP) Kaduna state
     • Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano state
     • Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH), Kano state
     • Evangelical Reformed Church of Christ (ERCC), Alushi, Nasarrawa state
     • Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, (NIMR) Yaba, Lagos state
     • Mainland Hospital, Lagos

3. South Africa (Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa
     • Springfield Research Site, King DinuZulu Hospital (KDH) Complex Durban

4. South Africa (WITS Health Consortium)
     • Jose Pearson TB Hospital, Bethelsdorp, Port Elizabeth